A kidney stone analysis is performed to determine the chemical composition of a stone when it is filtered out of the urine or removed from the urinary tract. A laboratory will typically document the physical characteristics of a stone – its size, shape, weight, color and texture. Often, a picture of the stone will be taken to document its size and appearance. The stone may also be fractured so that its layers can be observed. One or more tests will then be performed to determine the stone's composition.

In addition to the stone analysis, blood, urine, and 24-hour urine tests are often ordered to determine whether the individual produces excess chemicals that may contribute to the formation of kidney stones and to evaluate the person's overall health. The test results can help distinguish between a probable stone and other conditions that may have similar symptoms but require different treatment. Testing may include: